Idiomas | Languages

Cultural Manifestations

Reinado de São Benedito (Reign of St. Benedict)

 

The research indicates that D. Maria I, Queen of Portugal, in gratitude for the sending of the money by the Village of Cairu for the reconstruction of Lisbon, destroyed by the earthquake of 1755, granted to the brotherhood of St. Benedict of the then Villa of Our Lady of the Rosary Cairu to celebrate his patron saint with royal solemnities, attended by two "sovereigns", suggesting that the highest point of the party was the coronation of the "black king", as was already done in their African colonies. This curious decree would have granted the Cairu Negroes the right to participate in the remains of the white solemnity of the whites. However, since blacks could not participate in the Christmas festivities together with whites, they began to dance and sing in honor of their black saint - St. Benedict - the day after Christmas. From then on, the 26th of December was destined for the cult of St. Benedict - the first of a Negro in the context of the Portuguese discoveries.

 

The royal family of this manifestation was made up from its origins of the king and queen, prince, princess, judge, judge, all black except prince and princess, who were white and arcaba with the expenses (food, clothing and other utensils of the party) . Form found by the ruling class of the time to have control of the party and perpetuate the arrest of power.

 

The beauty of the festival reaches its highest point in the descent of the Flag, during which, in the presence of the Church (the Franciscans), of kings and queens (those who are delivering and those who receive the scepter), Congos, Chegança, Marujada and people sing "takes the king's crown out of there; put the crown on the king of here. "- The African roots are then clearly visible in this festive celebration of the coronation of the new king. All in atmosphere and ritual of reverence to his glorious Saint Benedict.

Congos

Folguedo that portrays the blacks from Africa who populated these lands, brought by the Portuguese settlers, mainly from Congo, the great African region bathed by the Congo River that gives it the peculiar name.  

 

The set consists of 13 to 25 elements and their clothing consists of a white shirt and trousers, a skirt round knee-length similar to the Bahianas, forming a colorful cheetah skirt, called "saiá", which is supported by a liana frame and a colored cape on the shoulders adorned by sequins, bear on the head a kind of crown.  

 

They are organized in two parallel rows, they dance with their own rhythms, to the sound of instruments of African origin - the ganzás - made of bamboo, in the middle is the master of the group that has skirt and cover different from the others, and plays the a trapeze-shaped ram's tambourine and a whistle. The "congas" play their "ganzás" dancing with body posture marked by the speed of steps and the independence between upper and lower limbs. The Boss of the Congos, in marking the beat, dances in a typical way, jumping here and there, accompanied by the whole group. In their songs they revere Saint Benedict and his lyrics evoke the suffering and longing for the distant land.  

 

In Cairu the group is part of the courtship of St. Benedict, which takes place between December 8 to January 6. This party runs the streets all day singing and dancing accompanying the reign and revering the holy protector.

 

Chegança

 

The Chegança is also another popular manifestation that accompanies the Reign of St. Benedict in Cairu. The group consists of 12 to 24 members. Sailors dressed in tambourine in hand, the "cheganceiros" form two lateral queues, the center is occupied by the master, who is characterized by an officer's uniform, a sword, a whistle and a bugle in his hands. foreman, who also has a distinctive uniform and has a sword and a bugle.

 

The spectacle, made up of independent episodes, recalls the Portuguese sailors' homesickness in Portugal, the loves they had left at the gates and the difficulties they encountered during the long sea voyages.

 

On December 26th, together with the Congos, Cheganca traveled through the city singing and performing diversified choreographies leading the court to attend the solemn Mass in the morning. The same spectacle is repeated on the second Sunday of January, ending the cycle of feasts of St. Benedict, when these groups challenge each other in the honors of the saint, especially when the crown is exchanged, which is "taken from the king from there" and placed "in the king of here".

 

Fanfare

FAMUCA - Municipal Fan of Cairu was created on March 8, 2002, with the purpose of avoiding the contact of young people and adolescents of the community with drugs and idleness.

 

For four years (from 2005 to 2008), FAMUCA participated in the Bahia Championship held by LICBAMBA - Bahia's Cultural Band of Band and Music Fanfare, when it won the title of three consecutive Bahian champions, remaining in the last year with the title of General Champion at the level Evolution, which means a milestone for the Group.

Filarmônica Centro Popular Cairuense (Cairu Popular Philharmonic Center)

A philharmonic is something of sensitive people, who have a taste for musical harmony and community life.

 

Of course, it was these feelings that united in the distant past, here in Cairu, men like João Vieira,. 1912, almost a hundred years ago, our Popular Cairuense Center.

 

It currently consists of 30 members, who have the opportunity to learn the art of "pre-erudite" music, as they develop skills to perform various instruments, as well as reading the music agenda.

Dandoca

The Dandoca is a large cloth doll made with a wooden frame. Your waist is located at the height of the eyes of the dancer / porter (the person dancing inside the doll and orienting himself through a small opening in the skirt).

 

Beloved popular manifestation, Dandoca presents itself in the festive moments of the community and is accompanied by the "giveaways" - the "girls" who dance and sing during the procession and at the presentation points. This number of dancers varies between 10 and 15 women who follow behind singing and dancing to the sound of the charanga.

Samba de Roda

 

Samba de roda appears in Bahia around the 19th century as a variant of traditional samba. As the name says, the samba is danced in the middle of a circle formed by the participants who sing and play.

 

The dance in the Samba de Roda is done mainly from the waist down with a slide back and forth of the feet glued to the floor and the corresponding movement of the hips. Singing and touching occur at the same time and several people can sambar on the wheel; only one person can sambar in the middle, when this tires, gives a "hook" (waist to waist) on another component of the wheel and place change.

 

The groups are composed of women of varying age but usually elderly; her outfit consists of a cheetah skirt, a blouse with shoulders to show, and a flower in her hair. It is accompanied by a group of men playing atabaque and tambourine accompanied by song and palms in the Afro-descendant rhythm.

 

In the municipality of Cairu there are currently 3 organized groups: Gamboa, Galeão and Boipeba.

 

Boi Malhado (pied ox)

The "Bumba Meu Boi" folguedo tells the story of the death and resurrection of an ox kidnapped by a cowherd to satisfy the desire of the Catirina woman (pregnant and with desire to eat the tongue of the cattle). Catirina desired to eat the tongue of the ox, but the ox did not die. Then they send for the doctor who makes a medicine prescription, but the ox does not raise. The pajé comes and makes a pajelança, there the ox rises and howls.

 

 The Boi Estrela de São Sebastião is a cultural group composed for the ox, the cowboy, the Catirina and a group of women who dance and sing in circle, accompanied by men who play various instruments with the participation of Nega Maluca that amuses everyone.

 

Capoeira

The history of capoeira begins in the sixteenth century, at a time when Brazil was a colony of Portugal. He came with the black Africans used as slaves mainly in the engenhos (sugar producing farms) of northeastern Brazil. Many of these slaves came from the region of Angola, also a Portuguese colony. The Angolans in Africa made many dances to the sound of music.

 

The practice of capoeira occurred in terreiros near the slave quarters (sheds that served as dormitory for slaves) and had as main functions the maintenance of culture, the relief of work stress and the maintenance of physical health. Often, the fights took place in fields with small shrubs, called in the time of capoeira or capoeirão. From the name of this place came the name of this fight, Capoeira.

 

In the municipality of Cairu there are currently several capoeira groups, both at Headquarters and in the localities of Morro de São Paulo, Boipeba, Gamboa and São Sebastião.

 

Barquinha

The Barquinha is similar to the caravels of the XV century that arrived in Brazil. it moves through the streets on four wheels, drawn by two ropes, one on each side.

 

In the course of the game the Barquinha is slowly pulled by 30 sailors, 15 on each side, under the command of 04 officers and 01 commander, all dressed in character, in accordance with the Navy uniform. The sailors sing swinging the ropes and the bodies, the officers go ahead along with the commander. Inside the Barquinha are three female children representing the three Marias, dressed in white, their heads covered by a veil, girded by a wreath of white flowers, and in the hand a small tambourine and three male children dressed as kings, they bring a golden crown on the head, robe and royal scepter representing the three Magi. These children should be: a white child, a mulatto and a black, symbolizing the kings: Baltazar, Belchior and Gaspar.

 

After walking through the main streets of the town hall, members of the party leave the Barquinha parked in Rua Direita and leave singing a ballad: it is the lament that tells the sad life of the sailors; the struggle and regrets of the Portuguese sailors who broke the seas and therefore sing torments. The end of the game happens in the Santo Antônio Convent, where Barquinha is collected until the following year.

 

Caretas ou Zambiapungas

This folguedo is a legacy of the African ancestors, as its name indicates. The slaves celebrated this ceremony in honor of the god of Candomblé Zamiapomgo, product of religious syncretism, because it was always celebrated on the eve of the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, patroness of the city of Cairu. The negro at that time, a victim of the cruel tyranny of the whites, mixed everything as a valve of escape, mental hygiene and spirituality that gave him the right to live and to vent his hurts like the others.

 

The group consists of men and women of varying ages. The components cover the face with masks, dress with the "domino" (a loose jumpsuit printed in various colors), with an angular helmet on the head adorned with colored tissue paper. Their musical instruments are the hoe, from which they make a characteristic sound by beating with a big nail (pin) and a great war drum; are accompanied by one or two participants who blow búzios and touch cuícas.

 

Formerly, the rehearsal was done behind the wall of the Santo Antônio Convent every day from 8 pm, with the leader being Old Manduba or Mestre Duba.

 

Currently, the trials take place only in October, at the time of the novenas in honor of the patron saint. The essay leaves the door of the Mother of Our Lady of the Rosary going through the main streets of the city. On the day of the party at 4 o'clock in the morning, the group begins its concentration, to the sound of the "dawn" (21 bombs are released, along with rockets and girandolas) and from 05h they leave the street announcing the beginning of the rites of the Party of the Rosary.

 

We emphasize the participation of every community during the lively parade that is a mixture of colors and sounds, generating a contagious wave of animation wherever it goes, at this moment there are no more prejudices, children, young adults and old people, whites and blacks participate in the game.

 

On Monday, after the party, also called Monday of the Rosary, around 4 pm the group returns to the streets of the city, for the "wedding of the faces", the costumed members assume the roles of: groom, bride, judge, witnesses, priest, etc. The ceremony goes through the streets to the sound of a band of breath, at the end of the wedding everyone takes the mask and begins a battle of talc, becoming a true carnival that advances through the night until all become tired.

Terno de Reis

 

The Festival of Kings or Folias de Reis is a celebration of Portuguese origin linked to the celebrations of the Catholic cult of Christmas, brought to Brazil in the early days of the formation of the Brazilian cultural identity, and which still remains alive today in the folkloric manifestations of many regions of the country.

 

Once the birth of Jesus Christ was established on December 25, the date of the visitation of the Magi was adopted as January 6. In Cairu, this celebration always happens on the second Sunday of January, along with the closing of the festivities of St. Benedict.

 

The Terno de Reis of Cairu consists of wings. The first is the shepherds (women of varying ages) who form two parallel rows, all dressed alike, in a long and colorful dress, with a tiara on their heads and in their hands they carry lanterns and props; the second wing is opened by a person representing the Star Dalva, then comes the "figures" of the suit, which vary according to the theme, when the suit takes the name of the Spring Roses the "figures" represent the different types of roses (red, yellow, etc.). When the theme is focused on the wonders of the sea, the "figures" represent the marine universe (conch shell, pearl, etc.). This part of the suit is closed by the Standard Gate which elegantly and glamor carries the theme of Suit; next comes the wing of the gypsies and ending the parade the Three Kings. The parade is accompanied by a band of blow and percussion.

 

The suit began more than 50 years ago, presented on Sunday of the party; currently presents itself on Saturday opening the closing festivities of the Cycle of Feast of St. Benedict of the Cairu Ordinance.

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